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學術研究

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TitleLaughter, Smiling and Their Pragmatic/Interpersonal Functions: An Interactional Linguistic Account
作者Li-Chi Lee Chen
作者說明Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz
Abstract
Based on 495 minutes of audio- and video-recorded data from television variety shows, this paper intends to illustrate and discuss the pragmatic/interpersonal functions of laughter and smiling from an interactional linguistic perspective. Laughter and smiling are not only expressions of emotion or subconscious responses to stimuli (Van Hooff 1972, Kendon 1975, Ekman & Friesen 1982, Glenn 2003, Holt 2011, Bavelas, Gerwing & Healing 2014, Warner-Garcia 2014). While laughter can show appreciation of another one’s humor/teasing, it can also be used as a prompt, indicating that the utterance is laughable, thereby inviting others to join in. Laughter can also be faked, produced by imitating the sound of natural laughter that displays pleasure and happiness. This type of laughter is often used for showing disagreement. Smiling, on the other hand, can be used to politely reject another one’s humor/teasing. It can also be used to mark non-verbal sarcasm. Its sarcastic nature results from the listener’s attempt at suppressing the desire to mock the current speaker while at the same time showing it in a passive-aggressive manner. Finally, smiling can also be used to show contempt. This type of smiling is produced by slightly raising one corner of the mouth and is characterized by looking somebody up and down, accompanied by different forms of verbal aggression and hand gestures.
 
Key words: conversation analysis, interactional linguistics, laughter, multimodal discourse analysis, smiling
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